Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia


Italian Hoagie

The Oxford English Dictionary says the word hoagie did not come into common usage until 1967, but within the Philadelphia region people were using the term as early as the 1930s. (Visit Philadelphia)

A hoagie is a sandwich made on a long Italian roll containing a variety of Italian meats and cheeses, lettuce, tomato, and onion, and dressed with olive oil, vinegar, and spices. Its exact origins are uncertain, but by the end of the twentieth century a mayoral proclamation declared the hoagie to be the “official sandwich” of Philadelphia.

Known outside of the Philadelphia region as a submarine sandwich, a grinder, or a hero, according to the Oxford English Dictionary the word hoagie did not come into common usage until 1967. However, within the region people were using the term as early as the 1930s, and it appeared in the Philadelphia City Directory for the first time in 1945. In 1950, a letter to the New York Times from a tourist to Philadelphia from Baltimore noted that the sandwich he recognized as a grinder was being referred to as a hoagie, hoggy, horgy, or hogy.

These alternative names give some clues to the hoagie’s still-mysterious origins. Some people have argued that the name derives from the Italian laborers who worked at southwest Philadelphia’s Hog Island during World War I and brought the sandwiches with them for lunch. The nickname for the laborers—hoggies—was applied to the sandwich as well. However, since the name does not appear in print until much later, this story seems unlikely. Another variation is that Italian street vendors, known as “hokey pokey” men, sold them, so that hoagie is actually a corrupted version of “hokey pokey.” The most widely accepted explanation, however, is that Al DePalma, a former musician, used the name at the sandwich shop he opened in 1936. Years before, he had seen a friend eating the large sandwich, and thought that he’d have to be a hog to finish it. DePalma called his sandwiches hoggies, but his customers pronounced them “hoagies.”

Planet Hoagie in Media, Pa., is one of countless shops that hawk hoagies in Greater Philadelphia. (Photo by Donald D. Groff for the Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia)

Planet Hoagie in Media, Pa., is one of countless shops that revolve around the steady appetite for hoagies in Greater Philadelphia. (Photo by Donald D. Groff for the Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia)

Whatever the source for the name, the sandwich is a connection to the region’s Italian immigrant heritage. When large numbers of Italians immigrated to the Northeast in the early twentieth century, many were motivated to do so by the hunger and poverty of their lives in Italy. In the United States, although they were still poor, they had access to better quality food and more meat than ever before. As one Italian immigrant wrote in a letter to his brother, still in Italy, in America “il pane e’molle, ma la vita e’dura” (“the bread is soft, but life is hard”). The hoagie’s excess, with its layers of meat and cheese and its sheer size, is a result of this newfound culinary abundance.

By the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, the hoagie had become representative of the Philadelphia region, eaten by all ethnicities and races. In 1992, Mayor Ed Rendell named the hoagie the Official Sandwich of Philadelphia. The convenience store chain Wawa has embraced the sandwich, and for years has sponsored a summer marketing campaign it calls hoagiefest. In 2014, the observance included an exhibit on the history of the hoagie at the National Constitution Center. Regional chain stores like Wawa and mom and pop delis and sandwich shops have helped ensure that the name remains dominant in the region.

Mary Rizzo is co-editor of The Public Historian and Public Historian in Residence at the Mid-Atlantic Regional Center for the Humanities at Rutgers University-Camden.

map of the continental united states showing use of the word for hoagie-like sandwiches.

A 2003 study on regional differences in word usage found that only the Philadelphia region is a hotbed of “hoagie” usage, indicated on this map in green. Nationally, “sub” is a far more common term. (Joshua Katz, Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, based on data from the Harvard Dialect Survey)

Copyright 2014, Rutgers University

Related Reading

Smith, Andrew, and Bruce Kraig. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. Oxford University Press, 2013.

Hines, Mary Anne, Gordon M. Marshall, and William Woys Weaver. The Larder Invaded: Reflections on Three Centuries of Philadelphia Food and Drink: A Joint Exhibition Held 17 November 1986 to 25 April 1987. The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1987.

Eames, Edwin, and Howard Robboy, “The Submarine Sandwich: Lexical Variations in a Cultural Context,” American Speech, 42 (4) 1967.

Diner, Hasia R. Hungering for America: Italian, Irish, and Jewish Foodways in the Age of Migration. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009.

Places to Visit

Paesano’s, locations at 1017 S. Ninth Street in South Philadelphia and 152 W. Girard Avenue in Northern Liberties, Philadelphia.

Sarcone’s Deli, 734 S. Ninth Street, South Philadelphia.

Carmen’s Deli, 42 E. Browning Road, Bellmawr, N.J. 

Abbruzzi and Giuntas Italian Market, 3211 Route 38, Mount Laurel, N.J.

Carlino’s Market, 2616 E. County Line Road,  Ardmore, Pa., and 128 W. Market Street, West Chester, Pa.

Salumeria, Reading Terminal Market, Twelfth and Arch Streets, Philadelphia.

Italian Market, centered at South Ninth Street and Washington Avenue, Philadelphia.

One Comment Comments

  1. As far as I know, Italian “hokey pokey” men did not sell hoagies, they only sold ice cream. That name for ice cream vendors comes into usage after the Civil War and was out of use by the 1930s. I do have a matchbook from the late 1940s from “Lee – Joe – Mary’s Original Hoggie Shop House of Qaulity Foods” at 17th and Kater Street. In this time period, at least one spelling variation seemed to show a relation to the word “hog.”

    Bob Skiba Posted August 9, 2016 at 6:58 pm

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  1. By The Tufts Daily on November 17, 2016 at 12:32 am

    […] The word “hoagie” is in fact a term for sandwich, often associated with the Philadelphia area. […]

  2. […] Philly cheesesteak always comes served in a hoagie roll. (Hoagie is the local name for a sub sandwich.) It has to be just right because if it’s too soft or hard, it […]

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