Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia

March of the Mill Children

photograph of Mother Jones at an old age

Mary Harris “Mother” Jones was a relentless champion of workers’ rights and led the fight against child labor. (Library of Congress)

The March of the Mill Children, the three-week trek from Philadelphia to New York by striking child and adult textile workers launched on July 7, 1903, by Mary Harris “Mother” Jones (1837-1930), trained public attention on the scourge of child labor and energized efforts to end it by law.

Jones, the storied Irish-born labor organizer, came to the Kensington section of northern Philadelphia in mid-June 1903 to rally support for some 46,000 textile workers, including many youths, who were staging the largest strike in city history to demand a reduced work week of 55 hours and a ban on night work by women and children. Told that newspapers were ignoring child labor because mill owners were stockholders, she retorted, “I’ve got stock in these little children, and I’ll arrange a little publicity.”

A fierce opponent of child labor and a masterly tactician, Jones seized on a march of young workers as a way of publicizing the strike while also exposing the evils of child labor and the excesses of industrial capitalism. Children were sent to work in coal mines and mills to supplement meager family incomes and as a result suffered stunted growth and maiming injuries. The 1900 census reported that one-sixth of American children under age 16 were employed, likely a gross undercount. More children worked in textile manufacturing than in any other trade. By 1900, textile factories and allied trades dominated Kensington, an early manufacturing center.

Philadelphia to New York

This black and white photograph shows labor activist Mother Jones surrounded by a large group of child textile workers and their parents.

Mary Harris “Mother” Jones (c. 1837–1930) led a three-week trek from Philadelphia to New York City to advocate the end of child labor and harsh factory conditions. Child textile workers and their parents join her in this 1903 photograph as they prepare to march. (Library of Congress)

At a rally in Kensington’s Labor Lyceum Hall (2914 N. Second Street), Jones revealed plans to lead an “industrial army” of hundreds of child strikers and their parents on a march of nearly 100 miles to New York City to dramatize their cause. She later expanded the itinerary to include a pilgrimage to President Theodore Roosevelt’s Long Island summer home to plead for child labor laws.

The marchers left Kensington to the sound of fifes and drums, heading to Bristol and Morrisville in Pennsylvania. From there, dwindling in numbers, fed and sheltered by unionists, farmers, socialists, and other allies, the ragtag crusaders slogged through heat and rain into the manufacturing belt of New Jersey, soliciting donations and staging rallies often attended by thousands. Their route extended from Trenton, Princeton, and New Brunswick north to Elizabeth, Newark, and Paterson, then into Passaic and Jersey City.

Torchlight parade

Reaching New York City on July 23, sixty marchers paraded up Second Avenue by torchlight. On Coney Island three days later, Jones put children in animal cages to dramatize what she labeled bosses’ attitudes toward workers. She and a delegation of five arrived July 29 at Roosevelt’s Sagamore Hill summer home, where they were rebuffed by his secretary. In the meantime, even before the crusade’s end, strikers thwarted by the manufacturers’ strategies and their own factional divisions had begun returning to the mills.

Nevertheless, the march advanced efforts to abolish child labor. In 1904, the National Child Labor Committee formed for advocacy and action. A year later Pennsylvania toughened its child labor laws, though it took another thirty-three years, until the New Deal presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, for nationwide legislation protecting young workers, the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, to replace a patchwork of state laws.

Gail Friedman holds a Master’s Degree in Public History from Temple University. She worked as a community planner for Bucks County, Pennsylvania, from 1999 to 2015.

Copyright 2014, Rutgers University.

Related Reading

Cordery, Simon. Mother Jones: Raising Cain and Consciousness. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2010.

Currie, Stephen. We Have Marched Together. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Company, 1997.

Gorn, Elliott J. Mother Jones: The Most Dangerous Woman in America. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001.

Jones, Mary Harris. The Autobiography of Mother Jones. Edited by Mary Field Parton. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr Publishing Company, 1996.

McFarland, C. K. “Crusade for Child Laborers: ‘Mother’ Jones and the March of the Mill Children.” Pennsylvania History 38, no. 3 (July 1971): 283-296.

Scranton, Philip. Figured Tapestry: Production, Markets and Power in Philadelphia Textiles, 1885-1941. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Smith, Russell E. “The March of the Mill Children.” Social Service Review 41, no. 3 (September 1967): 298-303.


National Child Labor Committee Collection, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Places to Visit

Mother Jones historical marker, N. Broad Street and John F. Kennedy Boulevard, Philadelphia.

Plaque commemorating the centennial of the March of the Mill Children’s arrival in Princeton, Palmer Square, Princeton, N.J.

Sagamore Hill National Historic Site, Oyster Bay, Long Island, N.Y.

4 Comments Comments

  1. Gail Friedman,
    Thanks for this article that I just read for the first time. I believe we are agreed that Mother Jones was one of the truly great leaders to live in this country. I wrote a biographical poem about her life that you can see by searching Mother Jones name on my blog.

    In solidarity,

    Steve Halpern

    Steven Halpern Posted December 30, 2017 at 3:16 pm
  2. Thanks this helped a lot. This was really helpful.

    jesica Posted January 31, 2018 at 11:51 am
  3. Wow, really liked this artcile. Helped me a lot with my history homwork! Lol, if I ever do it ;)!! Haha. But i actually read this and like I really liked it so awesome!

    Cole Anderson Posted March 27, 2018 at 8:53 am
  4. My grandmother and her sisters were child workers in the Kensington Textile mills. Do you know of any registries that tracked child labor? I’m also curious when this practice stopped. My grandmother was born in 1901 so she was a baby when Mother Jones led the strike. It’s my understanding that all of the girls in the family went to work in the factories after 6th grade. The boys were able to finish high school because they would need to be able to afford to raise families.

    Christine Posted October 29, 2021 at 2:09 pm

Logged in as . Log out? Add a Comment

Your email is never shared. Required fields are marked *


Comments 11 Trackbacks

  1. […] after, Mother Jones and her sign-carrying “children’s army” embarked on a 92-mile March of the Mill Children, to the Long Island, New York vacation home of President Theodore Roosevelt. The trek, which had […]

  2. […] not seek permits, have used its environs even before the plaza’s actual construction. From Mother Jones’ historic “March of the Mill Children” in 1903 to the Occupy Philadelphia encampment in 2011 (which struggled, at times bitterly, over the […]

  3. By Mother Jones - MiBurg on March 16, 2016 at 8:42 pm

    […] with the opinions of Blizzard or others like him because a year later she organized the “Children’s Crusade.” Mother Jones along with the children who worked in mills and mines marched from Philadelphia to […]

  4. […] with the opinions of Blizzard or others like him because a year later she organized the “Children’s Crusade.” Mother Jones along with the children who worked in mills and mines marched from Philadelphia to […]

  5. […] Way to Oyster Bay is a fictionalized account of the very real story of activist Mother Jones’ March of the Mill Children, beginning in Pennsylvania and going all the way through the streets of Manhattan, ending up on […]

  6. […] says it’s more than ironic that Kensington was the starting point of the 1904 March of the Mill Children, which was organized by Mary Harris “Mother” Jones to highlight the exploitation of millions of […]

  7. […] of marginalized American communities. Mother Jones (the labor leader, not the magazine) lead the March of the Mill Children from American Street in Kensington to the New York home of President Teddy Roosevelt in […]

  8. […] Jones put children in animal cages to raise awareness of child-labor issues, and led the March of the Mill Children campaign that took place in July of 1903. During that episode, dozens of children were among the […]

  9. […] activism, focusing on both participants and their methods. We will begin with Mother Jones’s 1903 March of the Mill Children, where more than 200 child laborers marched from Philadelphia to New York to protest horrific […]

  10. […] activists who greatly influenced the public’s view of the war. In 1903, children took part in a three-week march from Philadelphia to New York to bring light to the need for child labor laws which could protect […]

  11. […] time she had no permanent address. She attracted national attention when she organized the “March of the Mill Children,” a march of child millworkers to President Roosevelt’s doorstep. Almost a century after she […]

Share This Page: