University of PennsylvPhiladelphians embraced the study of celestial phenomena and bodies, such as stars, planets, and comets, from an early date. As early as 1769, the American Philosophical Society’s involvement in tracking that year’s transit of Venus gained transatlantic scientific attention. Astronomy remained a popular scientific pursuit throughout the region’s history; the Franklin Institute and Rittenhouse Astronomical Society continued to generate local interest in the science in the twenty-first century.

A black and white engraving of David Rittenhouse seated at his desk with telescope and papers
David Rittenhouse was a celebrated early American astronomer whose work on the 1769 transit of Venus brought him transatlantic fame. (Historical Society of Pennsylvania)

Eighteenth-century almanacs contained various kinds of astronomical data, including schedules of eclipses and sunrise/sunset tables. Some of the more popular Philadelphia imprints included Poor Richard’s Almanack, printed by Benjamin Franklin (1706–90), and Der Hoch-Deutsch Americanische Kalender, printed by Germantown’s Christopher Saur (1693–1758). Almanacs commonly included a Zodiac Man or Man of Signs, an astrological diagram that showed how planets governed specific parts of the human body. Historically, though the practice was on the decline by the eighteenth century, the image was intended to be used in conjunction with the almanac’s astronomical data to diagnose illnesses. However it was used, the relevancy of astronomical information in almanacs was contingent upon one’s geographical location, prompting local residents, notably David Rittenhouse (1732–96), to provide almanac calculations for the vicinity of Philadelphia.

David Rittenhouse was a celebrated early American astronomer whose work on the 1769 transit of Venus brought him transatlantic fame. A transit of Venus occurs when the orbit of Venus passes between the sun and the earth, a rare though predictable phenomenon that occurs twice separated by a gap of roughly eight years after a longer gap of over one hundred years. Not to miss a literal once-in-a-lifetime opportunity, the American Philosophical Society organized a committee consisting of Rittenhouse, William Smith (1727–1803), John Lukens (1720?–89), and John Sellers to take observations in Norriton, near Rittenhouse’s home. A second observatory was constructed in the State House Garden. The Royal Society of London published Rittenhouse’s delineation of the transit, and the American Philosophical Society released an account of the committee’s doings in the first issue of its Transactions, in 1773. This work was met with approval from European scientists. Rittenhouse supplied local astronomers, often using his mechanical talents to make complex and beautiful astronomical instruments. In addition to crafting some of the equipment for the observatories at Norriton and the State House, he made two orreries, mechanical devices for studying the movement of planets, for the College of New Jersey in 1770 and the University of Pennsylvania in 1771.

School Observatories

A 1902 photograph of Central High School's building on Broad and Green Streets with its observatory
Observatories were built at several Philadelphia-area schools in the nineteenth century, including Central High School. For the observatory here, the finest equatorial telescope was obtained from Von Utschneider and Fraunhofer in Munich, Germany.

Local colleges and universities maintained a number of impressive observatories between the eighteenth and twenty-first centuries, but a Philadelphia city high school became one of the most technologically advanced institutions in the country in 1837. The city set aside $50,000 for the establishment of Central High School, which included $10,000 to build and furnish an astronomical observatory and library. Sharon Female Academy, founded by John Jackson (1809–55) in nearby Darby, seeking to emulate Central High, acquired a similar observatory and telescope.

Use of telescopes was not exclusive to observatories. Popular speakers used telescopes to teach astronomy in lyceum halls. In the 1840s, Irish lecturer Dionysius Lardner (1793–1859) offered his take on the theory of “The Plurality of Worlds,” an early argument for extraterrestrial life, while traveling through Philadelphia. The argument posited that if God had made other planets, they must be inhabited. Through Lardner’s performances telescopes became a means of visualizing intelligent design.

A black and white map of the stars as they may be observed from the northern hemisphere
Ezra Otis Kendall taught astronomy at Central High School and the University of Pennsylvania. This celestial chart appeared in his mid-century work, Atlas of the Heavens, which appeared in multiple editions. (Google Books)

Popular thirst for astronomical knowledge, coupled with school curricula, encouraged local markets for textbooks and scientific instruments. Ezra Otis Kendall (1818–99), who taught at Philadelphia High School, authored Uranography and Atlas of the Heavens, which appeared in various editions in the 1840s and 1850s. The latter contained maps of stars and constellations. Kendall preferred color-printed star charts that depicted white stars on a blue field because he felt this better represented the nature of the heavens, Kendall’s charts also eschewed fanciful representations of constellations that confused his students. Fellow Philadelphian, Henry Whitall (1819–87), in Treatise on Fixed Stars (1850), followed suit. Testimonials for Whitall’s charts suggest that they were used by pupils of various ages, male and female alike. Women, too, wrote astronomy texts. Hannah M. Bouvier (1811–70), a resident of Crosswicks, New Jersey, wrote her Familiar Astronomy, a Philadelphia imprint, in 1855. The fifth part of her work dealt with practical astronomy, or the use of astronomical instruments. Philadelphians could visit local manufacturing companies, including McAllister & Brothers and James W. Queen & Co. These companies made telescopes, celestial globes, and various astronomical tools and glass lenses. In the 1870s and 1880s, James W. Queen & Co. advertised Henry Whitall’s “Moveable Planispheres,” large printed or brightly painted paper disks that could be rotated to determine visible stars for a particular time and date.

Other Astronomical Societies

a black and white photograph of Dr. Roy Marshall polishing the Fels Planetarium's giant mirror
The Fels Planetarium was donated to the Franklin Institute for its new museum on the Ben Franklin Parkway. It was only the second planetarium in the United States when it opened in 1933. (Special Collections Research Center, Temple University Libraries)

Philadelphia’s culture of astronomy spawned a number of popular astronomical societies in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In 1888, residents of Philadelphia and Camden met in New Jersey to found the Camden Astronomical Society, one of the oldest amateur astronomy clubs in the country. Edmund Read Jr. (1859–1923), a Camden businessman, became its first president. For the first thirty-five years, the society held its meetings at Read’s house. In 1927, it became the Rittenhouse Astronomical Society, meeting at the Sproul Observatory, built in 1906, at Swarthmore College. Newly renamed, the society, with the cooperation of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, American Philosophical Society, and other area institutions, did much to promote the bicentennial of Rittenhouse’s birth in 1932, including establishing the Rittenhouse Medal, an award for outstanding achievement in astronomy. When the Franklin Institute opened a museum on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, the society began to meet there, taking advantage of the new Fels Planetarium and Institute Observatory. Other local societies included the West Jersey Astronomical Society (founded 1967) and student-run societies at colleges and universities, such as the Physics and Astronomy Club at the University of Pennsylvania.

Well-established scientific institutions ushered in popular interest in astronomy, too. In the late twentieth century, Derrick Pitts (b. 1955) transformed the Franklin Institute’s astronomical programs. Pitts began working at the Franklin Institute as a college student in 1978 and became chief astronomer in 1990. Pitts was influential in creating the “Space Command” permanent exhibit, which provided children a hands-on experience with astronomical artifacts. In 2004, Science Spectrum magazine named Pitts one of the fifty most important African Americans in research science. In 2008, Pitts became the host of SkyTalk on WHYY Radio, a weekly broadcast of astronomical news made accessible for a popular audience. He became a NASA Ambassador in 2009. Pitts, the Franklin Institute, and the Rittenhouse Astronomical Society held various educational astronomy events during the Annual Philadelphia Science Festival, including a citywide telescope night.

Between the eighteenth and the twenty-first centuries, Philadelphians maintained a steady interest in astronomy. Scholars and popular practitioners looked to the sky to answer various questions—medical, religious, philosophical, and scientific—all means of finding their place in the universe.

Jessica Linker is a doctoral candidate at the University of Connecticut, Storrs, and the recipient of fellowships from a number of Philadelphia-area institutions, including the Library Company of Philadelphia, the American Philosophical Society, and the McNeil Center for Early American Studies. Her work focuses on American women and scientific practice between 1720 and 1860. (Author information current at time of publication.)

Copyright 2016, Rutgers University


David Rittenhouse

Historical Society of Pennsylvania

Philadelphia native David Rittenhouse was one of the United States' earliest astronomers. Born just outside of the Germantown neighborhood, Rittenhouse showed an aptitude for math and science from a young age. He founded a scientific instrument shop at age 19 and, in addition to clocks, built two orreries, mechanical devices for studying the movement of the planets, which were purchased by the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) and the University of Pennsylvania. The devices are capable of showing celestial phenomena five thousand years either forward or backward. Rittenhouse became a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1768.

Rittenhouse's most famous work was his 1769 study of the transit of Venus, a periodic phenomenon where the planet Venus passes between the sun and the Earth. The American Philosophical Society arranged for Rittenhouse, along with William Smith, John Lukens, and John Sellers, to observe the transit near Rittenhouse's Norriton home and a new observatory at the State House Garden. Their findings were published by both the American Philosophical Society and the Royal Society of London. Rittenhouse continued his astronomical work by becoming the University of Pennsylvania's professor of astronomy in 1779.

In addition, Rittenhouse served vital political roles in Revolutionary Philadelphia, using his mechanical skills to improve the colonists' armaments. He was a member of the Pennsylvania Assembly, Pennsylvania's state legislature, and the Board of War, and was a delegate to the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention of 1776. In 1779, he became the treasurer of Pennsylvania, a position he held until 1787, and finally director of the United States Mint from 1792 until 1795. He died at age 67, about a year after his resignation from that position.

State House Garden

Library of Congress

The Pennsylvania State House, now known as Independence Hall, was the site of one of the city's earliest observatories. Built hastily in anticipation of the 1769 transit of Venus, a rare phenomenon in which Venus's orbit passes between the Earth and the sun, it was one of two observatories used by a team organized by the American Philosophical Society. Its construction was funded by the Pennsylvania Assembly, and a telescope was provided by Benjamin Franklin, who was serving as a diplomat in London. The structure was temporary and demolished after the transit event. Its foundation was uncovered in the nineteenth century when new sewage lines were installed.

Central High School, 1902

Historical Society of Pennsylvania

Central High School was founded in 1836 during a wave of interest in astronomy generated by the return of Halley's Comet. The public school included, at its original location on Market Street near Juniper Street, an observatory, the first in the United States to use German telescopic equipment. It was in Central High's observatory that astronomer Ezra Otis Kendall, a teacher at the school, made his observations on Encke's Comet, which he later published. The school changed locations several times, constructing this sixty-room schoolhouse in 1902 at Broad and Green Streets. This new location also contained an observatory, seen here as the dome on the central tower. The school moved again in 1939 to Ogontz and Olney Avenues, where it remained in the early twenty-first century. The building at Broad and Green Streets was demolished in the 1960s and the location became the site of Benjamin Franklin High School.

Admission to Central High School was restricted to male students for most of its history. It was not until 1983 that female students were admitted to the school after a decade of lawsuits and appeals. The school holds several important distinctions. It is the second-oldest continuously operating public school in the United States as well as the only high school authorized to award bachelor’s degrees to students who meet the requirements.

Ezra Otis Kendall Celestial Chart

Google Books

Born in Massachusetts, Ezra Otis Kendall moved to Philadelphia with his half-brother, Sears Cook Walker. Both Walker and Kendall became accomplished astronomers and members of the American Philosophical Society, with Kendall serving as vice president of the organization. He became the professor of astronomy and director of the observatory at Central High School, a public school opened in 1836 on Market Street near Juniper Street. He published a work on Encke's Comet, a comet that orbits the sun approximately every 3.3 years, as observed from the high school's observatory. He later became a professor of mathematics for the University of Pennsylvania, also serving as the school’s vice provost and the professor of astronomy at various times. This image is of a celestial chart that appeared in Kendall's Atlas of the Heavens. It depicts constellations as can be observed from the northern hemisphere. This particular chart was printed in blue.

Sharon Female Seminary, Sharon Hill

Library Company of Philadelphia

Several Philadelphia-area high schools boasted observatories in the nineteenth century. The Sharon Female Seminary, located in Sharon Hill, Delaware County, was one such school. It was founded in 1837 by Quaker minister John Jackson and his wife, Rachel. The Jacksons wanted to provide a school for girls as modern and well-equipped as those being built for male students in the region, such as Philadelphia's Central High School. They believed, especially, that young girls should be allowed to study science with state-of-the-art equipment. As such, Sharon Female Seminary's observatory telescope, imported from Munich, was the largest and most powerful refracting telescope in the United States when the Jacksons purchased it. The Sharon Female Seminary educated some six hundred women from Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland before closing in 1856 after John Jackson's death.

Polishing the Projector Mirror at the Fels Planetarium

Special Collections Research Center, Temple University Libraries

The Franklin Institute gained a planetarium when philanthropist Samuel S. Fels donated one to be housed in the institute's museum on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, still under construction at that time. Fels was the president of the Fels & Co. soap company, which was founded by his brother Joseph in 1876. Fels became a household name in 1893 with the development of Fels-Naptha, a soap that proved exceptional for cleaning laundry. During the early twentieth century, the business operated out of a mill in the Cobbs Creek neighborhood of southwest Philadelphia, and huge demand for the product made the Fels brothers wealthy. Samuel purchased the planetarium, only the second in the United States after Chicago's, from Germany and also paid for a structure to house it. Unlike Chicago's cloth dome, Fels Planetarium's dome is made of steel. It opened in November 1933, nearly two months before the rest of the museum.

This 1940 photograph shows Dr. Roy Marshall, an astronomer who went on to be one of the earliest science personalities on television, polishing the mirror used in projections. The Fels Planetarium's projector has been replaced to keep up with modern technology. Today, the planetarium offers astronomical programs using a modern digital projector.

Related Topics


Time Periods



Related Reading

Billings, Cecil M. History of the Rittenhouse Astronomical Society, 1888–1960. [Philadelphia?]: Rittenhouse Astronomical Society, [1959?] .

Hindle, Brooke. David Rittenhouse. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964.

Hoppes, Ronald R. Most Important Clock in America: The David Rittenhouse Astronomical Musical Clock at Drexel University. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 2009.

Horrocks, Thomas A. Popular Print and Popular Medicine: Almanacs and Health Advice in Early America. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008.

Related Collections

Related Places



Connecting the Past with the Present, Building Community, Creating a Legacy