Historic Preservation


Through more than three centuries of building and rebuilding settlements, towns, and cities, the region centered on Philadelphia and spanning southeastern Pennsylvania, South Jersey, and northern Delaware became a living museum of American architectural history. The fate of structures ranging from log cabins and colonial mansions to courthouses, warehouses, and the famed Independence Hall often depended on changing economic circumstances in communities or happenstances of care or neglect by property owners. However, through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries an organized preservation movement emerged locally and across the nation. By the twenty-first century, layers of local, state, and federal law supported historic preservation, but controversy could flare when plans for new development came into conflict with desires to protect buildings regarded as significant representations of the past.

a color photograph of Independence Hall
Independence Hall escaped demolition in 1816 when the city purchased it from the state, which planned to sell the land as building lots. The campaign to save and restore the building, originally the Pennsylvania State House, was the earliest recorded historic preservation effort in the United States. (Library of Congress)

As early as 1748, the Swedish naturalist Peter Kalm (1716-79) noted during his travels that Philadelphians were preserving an aging house—identified only as “the Swanson house”—as a reminder of the city’s earlier settlers. But in the colonial and early national eras, in a region with a growing population and high demand for residential and commercial structures, sentiment seldom saved old buildings from being replaced with new ones. Memories of streetscapes and landscapes were more likely to be preserved through works of art, such as the prints of William Russell Birch (1755-1834) published in the 1790s or the illustrations in Annals of Philadelphia, by New Jersey native John Fanning Watson (1779-1860), published in various editions beginning in 1830. In Delaware, a street survey by architect Robert Mills (1781-1855), Survey of New Castle, documented that town’s seventeenth- and eighteenth-century buildings in 1805. Colonial-era structures that survived into the nineteenth century did so as a byproduct of durability or continuing use, which preserved architectural legacies such as the pattern-brick houses of southern New Jersey. Northwest of the original limits of Philadelphia, mansions remained standing as a result of the city’s purchase of country estates in the early nineteenth century to create Fairmount Park. Farther out, mansions in Germantown passed down in families for generations. Throughout the region, the most substantial homes built of stone or brick had the highest rates of survival.

The slow emergence of interest in historic preservation can be charted by the treatment of Independence Hall, originally the Pennsylvania State House (built beginning in 1732). Pennsylvanians demonstrated a lack of interest in preservation when, in 1781, they demolished the building’s original wood steeple after it became unstable. In 1813, the state also demolished the original arched piazzas and wing buildings that flanked the central structure and replaced them with rows of fireproof office buildings. Around the same time, descendants of Benjamin Franklin (1706-90) also allowed his Franklin Court home and property to be demolished and redeveloped into building lots.

Preserving the Old State House

Regard for the old State House as a physical reminder of the past changed with the passage of time, especially as the American Revolution began to fade from lived experience into historical memory. In 1816, long after the Pennsylvania capital moved west to Lancaster and then to Harrisburg, Philadelphians mobilized to purchase the old State House and its square as city property rather than see the state carry out plans to sell them off for building lots. City officials had practical as well as historical motives, given the building’s use as a polling place for local elections and the value of a healthful open square in the increasingly congested city. Still, their action marked the first documented act of historic preservation in the United States. In 1828, when the Philadelphia City Councils authorized reconstructing the State House steeple to house a new clock and bell, they insisted that the architect William Strickland (1788-1854) revise his designs to replicate the original as closely as possible. Nearby, in the 1850s the Carpenters’ Company also preserved its headquarters, Carpenters’ Hall (built 1770), the meeting place of the First Continental Congress.

A black and white photograph of the Indian King Tavern, a white two-story building with a three-story attachment. The second floor has a row of windows with black shutters. A wooden horse trough is on the sidewalk in front.
New Jersey’s State Assembly officially adopted the Declaration of Independence at the Indian King Tavern in 1777. In 1903, the tavern became the state’s first government-owned historic site. (Library of Congress)

Historic preservation during the nineteenth century focused primarily on high-style buildings, especially residences associated with prominent individuals. In Philadelphia and the surrounding region, where George Washington (1732-99) slept, worked, and led armies into battle, some of these efforts drew inspiration from the 1850s campaign to save Mount Vernon, Washington’s Virginia home—a project generally regarded as the birth of the historic preservation movement in the United States. The Colonial Revival, an embrace of colonial-era aesthetics that emerged around the time of the 1876 Centennial, also inspired preservation campaigns. In the subsequent decades, in an era of when increasing immigration and industrialization seemed to undermine older social and economic orders, historical societies, patriotic organizations, and state governments took steps to safeguard sites of early American history. In Pennsylvania, for example, the state appointed a Valley Forge Park Commission in 1893, and in New Jersey, the state made the Indian King Tavern (built c. 1750) in Haddonfield its first government-owned historic site in 1903. The first preservation organization in Delaware, the Friends of Old Drawyers, formed in 1895 to save the Presbyterian church by that name (built c. 1773) in New Castle County.

a black and white portrait of Mabel Lloyd Ridgely, seated in a white lace dress. A rolled up poster or magazine is tucked under her arm.
Women spearheaded many preservation projects in the twentieth century as a way to participate in the public and civic realms. Suffragist Mabel Lloyd Ridgely, pictured in The Women Citizen in 1919, saved the Old Delaware State House from demolition in 1912. (Wikimedia Commons)

Often, leaders of preservation projects in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century could trace their own ancestry to the era of colonial settlement or the American Revolution. And like the Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association in Virginia, women often led local efforts to preserve or restore historic homes. During the second half of the nineteenth century, women organized to save the Valley Forge home that served as Washington’s headquarters during the 1777-78 encampment of the Continental Army. Ancestral societies such as the Colonial Dames of America prevented demolition and preserved historic houses such as Stenton (built 1720s), the Germantown country home of colonial leader James Logan (1674-1751). The Daughters of the American Revolution in the 1890s took the lead in renovating the second floor of Independence Hall to reestablish a colonial ambience, and in Delaware Mabel Lloyd Ridgely (1872-1962) saved her state’s old State House (built 1787-91) from demolition in 1912. Later, in the twentieth century, the Colonial Dames of New Jersey took charge of the preserving and conserving Peachfield, a Burlington County estate dating to 1674, and the 1759 “Old Schoolhouse” in Mount Holly.

Period Rooms in Museums

While some colonial houses converted into museums, the interiors of others became museum pieces as appreciation for colonial-era aesthetics led art museum curators to install period rooms stripped from actual colonial-era houses. Thus, in 1918 the interior of a room from the Philadelphia home of Mayor Samuel Powel (1738-93, home built 1765) came to be preserved in New York, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Interiors from other parts of the country, especially from the South, came to Delaware for the collections of Henry Francis du Pont (1880-1969), who created the Winterthur Museum showcase of American decorative arts. The museum became a point of pilgrimage for preservationists, and du Pont and his sister Louise du Point Crowninshield (1877-1958) became early leaders in organizations such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, founded in 1949. In the same era at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Fiske Kimball (1888-1955), the architecture and preservation authority who served as director for nearly three decades, oversaw the installation of period rooms as well as restorations of mansions in Fairmount Park.

Historic preservation gained momentum among professional architects and citizen activists during the early and middle decades of the twentieth century. New Castle, Delaware, became a destination for architects seeking to learn from the surviving colonial-era buildings of the town founded by the Dutch in 1651, where William Penn (1644-1718) first landed in America in 1682. Preservation in the riverfront town gained momentum during the 1920s and 1930s as individuals and groups purchased and restored structures including the building known as the “Dutch House” (c. 1690-1710), the Amstel House (c. 1738), and the George Read House (1797-1803).

A black and white photograph of Frances Wister standing before a plaque celebrating the founders and architects of the Academy of Music. A wreath of evergreen leaves
Frances Wister devoted most of her life to the preservation of Philadelphia’s historic landmarks and homes, including those belonging to her own extended family. This photo shows Wister in 1924 after a successful battle to save the Academy of Music. (Special Collections Research Center, Temple University Libraries)

Preservation activity also responded to industrial and commercial growth, which produced a new generation of buildings overshadowing and sometimes threatening structures of earlier times. Organizations formed for the specific purpose of historic preservation, especially in the oldest sections of Philadelphia. The Philadelphia Society for the Preservation of Landmarks, founded under the leadership of Frances Wister (1874-1956) in 1931, saved the colonial-era Powel House at 244 S. Third Street from demolition. The society later extended its protection to the Hill-Physick House (built 1786) nearby on Fourth Street; Grumblethorpe (built 1744), the Wister family home in Germantown; and Waynesborough (built 1724), the birthplace of Revolutionary War General Anthony Wayne (1745-96), in Chester County. Inspired by the Landmarks Society, residents of Elfreth’s Alley took steps to preserve their little colonial-era street near the Delaware River between Arch and Race Streets, which unlike other nearby structures had been spared during construction of the Delaware River Bridge (opened in 1926, later renamed the Benjamin Franklin Bridge). Another group, An Organization for the Conservation of Historic Sites in Old Philadelphia, evolved from a committee of the Sons of the Revolution under the leadership of Judge Edwin O. Lewis (1879-1974). In 1942, Lewis and other prominent Philadelphians founded the Independence Hall Association, which successfully lobbied the state and federal governments to create expanded parks around Independence Hall (ironically spurring widespread demolition of nineteenth-century structures during the 1950s to showcase buildings associated with the nation’s founding). The authorization of Independence National Historical Park in 1948 brought a new cadre of National Park Service professionals to town, among them the nationally known preservation architect Charles E. Peterson (1906-2004), who took an active role in revitalizing the Center City neighborhood that became known as Society Hill.

Post-World War II Preservation

A black and white photograph of a line of three- or four-story row homes on the 600 block of Spruce Street, Philadelphia.
Thousands of historic homes in the Society Hill neighborhood of Philadelphia escaped the wrecking ball in the 1950s and ’60s when urban renewal efforts were causing widespread demolitions nearby. The homes on the 600 block of Spruce Street remain largely unchanged from this 1957 photograph. (PhillyHistory.org)

New fuel for the historic preservation movement arrived after World War II as urban renewal and the construction of interstate highways led to widespread demolition of aging urban neighborhoods in the Philadelphia region and elsewhere. In reaction, interest in preservation expanded beyond colonial-era buildings associated with famous people to encompass a wider range of time periods and building types. Philadelphia became one of the first cities in the nation to establish a Historical Commission, created by ordinance in 1955 and given the power to certify properties as historic, thereby adding protections against alterations or demolition. In Society Hill, Philadelphia departed from urban renewal through wholesale demolition and pioneered an approach of selectively preserving and restoring colonial-era buildings. The neighborhood, which had deteriorated into slum conditions by the middle of the twentieth century, transformed into a showcase, although gentrified by homeowners who were younger, wealthier, and more likely to be white than earlier occupants. In Germantown, a citizens group called Colonial Germantown Inc. (formed in 1956) adopted a similar strategy of combining historic preservation with development.

Elsewhere in Philadelphia and in other cities in the region, widespread demolition remained the rule. Proposals for new highways spurred movements to preserve communities that risked being displaced. Residents of the South Street corridor in Philadelphia successfully mobilized against a planned Crosstown Expressway during the 1960s, but Chinatown lost its battle against the Vine Street Expressway in the 1970s. The construction of I-95 during the 1960s and 1970s separated most of Philadelphia from its historic waterfront and wiped out late nineteenth-century neighborhoods in Wilmington, Delaware, where most traces of eighteenth-century life had already been erased by urban renewal. The Delaware Historical Society saved some of Wilmington’s early buildings by moving them, forming the Willingtown Square collection of eighteenth-century buildings in 1976.

In the face of continuing threats to historic resources, federal law during the 1960s and 1970s opened a new era in preservation, with significant impact in Philadelphia and the surrounding region. The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 established a National Register of Historic Places, which necessitated state-level review of nominations. Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware all established historic preservation offices to review proposals for the Register and offer technical assistance. In addition to individual buildings, historic districts and sites likely to hold archaeological resources could be nominated for the National Register. Properties at least fifty years old could be listed, setting a new threshold for defining sites as “historic” to encompass not only the distant past but also parts of the twentieth century. The law’s Section 106 also called for assessing impacts on historic resources prior to federally funded projects, a requirement that spurred creation of local consulting firms employing preservation architects, historians, and archaeologists. Their work produced new knowledge and documentation for sites such as the First African Baptist Church Burial Ground at Eighth and Vine Streets in Philadelphia, excavated during the 1980s and 1990s in connection with projects adjacent to the Vine Street Expressway.

Tax Incentives for Preservation

Further impact in the region followed the Tax Reform Act of 1976, which created the Federal Historic Preservation Tax Incentives Program. Federal tax credits proved to be enticing to developers and transformational in local neighborhoods like Old City in Philadelphia, where developers rehabilitated and adapted former factories, warehouses, and office buildings. The new purposes for these structures, many from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, ranged from affordable housing for seniors to high-end apartment buildings that developers later converted to condominiums. Following the federal government’s lead, Pennsylvania and Delaware enacted state-level tax credits for preservation.

With designations for the National Register of Historic Places largely honorary, legal protections for historic buildings required additional support and regulation at the state and local level. In the region around Philadelphia, New Jersey went farthest in creating an infrastructure for historic preservation, establishing the New Jersey Historic Trust (1967), a Historic Sites Council (1967), and a New Jersey Register of Historic Places (1970). In 1971, Haddonfield became the first municipality in the state to adopt a historic preservation ordinance, and many others followed after 1986, when an amendment to the New Jersey Municipal Land Use Law included provisions encouraging local historic preservation ordinances. Despite preservation successes in many communities, however, destruction of notable New Jersey buildings occurred in the service of redevelopment and with support of state government agencies. For example, the state overruled a 2007 decision by the Historic Sites Council to prevent demolition of the 1927 Sears Roebuck building in Camden, setting the stage for a five-year court battle by local activists that ultimately failed. Demolition followed, clearing the site to become a corporate campus for Campbell’s Soup and Subaru International. In 2017, the New Jersey Department of Transportation bulldozed the Hugg-Harrison-Glover House (built 1764) in Bellmawr in the midst of a vigorous preservation campaign by the Camden County Historical Society.

A black and white photograph of the facade of the Boyd Theater, a 1920s-era Art Deco style movie palace. The facade is of carved white granite and an ornate entryway frames a central ticket booth. A large vertical sign on the front reads "BOYD" and a marquee advertises "Theodore Dreisers Novel Jennie Gerhart" and "Sylvia Sidney in Jennie Gerhart". A banner beneath the marquee reads "Its Cool Inside!"
The recent popularity of historic preservation projects and a long battle waged by preservationists could not save the Boyd Theater’s 1928 Art Deco interior from destruction. In 2014, the Philadelphia Historical Commission approved demolition on the basis of the financial hardship of the owner. (Phillyhistory.org)

In Pennsylvania, relatively few municipalities established local governance over historic preservation through two available programs, the state-level Act 167 for certifying local historic districts and the zoning provisions of the Municipalities Planning Code. Momentum for historic preservation depended heavily on activism by nongovernmental organizations such as the Philadelphia Historic Preservation Corporation (founded 1979) and Preservation Coalition of Greater Philadelphia (founded 1982), which merged in 1996 to form the Preservation Alliance for Greater Philadelphia. Even in Philadelphia, with an established Historical Commission, failures to establish local certification for structures on the National Register left historic properties at risk, as illustrated in 2016-18 by plans to add a high-rise apartment building towering over nineteenth-century Jewelers Row. In 2014, Philadelphia preservationists also lost a hard-fought battle to preserve the Boyd Theater (built 1928), an Art Deco movie palace at Nineteenth and Chestnut Streets that the Historical Commission allowed to be demolished on the basis of financial hardship of the owner. By 2017, the apparent weaknesses in Philadelphia’s historic preservation policies prompted Mayor Jim Kenney (b. 1958) to appoint a task force to recommend improvements.

By the twenty-first century, advocates for historic preservation emphasized not only aesthetics and historic values but also economic benefits, such as the role of preservation in supporting the heritage tourism industry. Preservation advocates stressed both the cost savings and the environmental benefits of rehabilitating structures over scrapping them to build anew. The pressures of development remained among the chief challenges to historic preservation, not only in cities but also in rapidly changing rural areas. Meanwhile, climate change raised new concerns as rising sea levels began to impact shore areas of New Jersey and Delaware, floods occurred more often in historic riverside communities in Pennsylvania, and high-intensity storms increased in frequency. In all three states, preservation agencies struggled to rebound from funding and staff cuts imposed during the economic recession that began in 2008. Across the region, preservation activists developed action plans for the long term, and fought battles where necessary, to assure a future for the material remains of the past.

Charlene Mires is Professor of History at Rutgers-Camden and Editor-in-Chief of The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia. (Author information current at time of publication.)

Copyright 2019, Rutgers University


Old Drawyers Church, 1936

Library of Congress

Delaware’s first preservation group organized to preserve Old Drawyers, a Presbyterian church in Odessa, New Castle County, constructed in 1773. Old Drawyers fell into disrepair after the congregation built a new church in 1861. The Friends of Old Drawyers began holding ceremonial services in the church and raised funds to restore it beginning in 1895. Their early action to save the church preserved much of the building’s original fabric, including a Georgian entryway and an ornate sounding board suspended above the pulpit. Old Drawyers was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.

Frances Ann Wister

Special Collections Research Center, Temple University Libraries

Historic preservation allowed women to participate in civic affairs during an era where few other public roles were open to them. Frances Ann Wister (1874-1956), a staunch suffragist and women’s rights activist in the late nineteenth century, turned her attentions to the disappearing historic landscape of Philadelphia after the Nineteenth Amendment passed. One of her earliest victories was the 1920 preservation of the Academy of Music, accomplished while she served as director of the Philadelphia Orchestra, which was set to abandon the structure for a new building to be built on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway. This 1924 photo shows her celebrating her victory as a new historic plaque was installed on the famed building.

Wister went on to preserve her family’s own homes, Grumblethorpe in Germantown and the Wister House, now part of the LaSalle University campus. In 1931, she founded the Philadelphia Society for the Preservation of Landmarks with Sophia Cadwalader (1867-1955) and other prominent women, two years before the Historic American Buildings Survey spread this goal nationally. The group surveyed endangered properties in the city, devised historic tours of Fairmount Park’s mansions, and helped form the Philadelphia History Museum at the Atwater Kent, which remained in operation until 2018. In her later years, Wister became a member of the Independence Hall Association and was instrumental in the preservation and redevelopment of the Society Hill neighborhood.

Mabel Lloyd Ridgely

Wikimedia Commons

Civic leader Mabel Lloyd Ridgely (1872-1962) led the campaign to save the Old Delaware State House from demolition in 1912. Ridgely held a keen interest in history and particularly preservation. When the 1792 state house, by then gutted and fitted with a late-nineteenth century mansard roof and tower, was threatened by demolition, Ridgely fought for its preservation and brought in architect Edward L. Tilton (1861-1933) to restore the exterior to its original appearance. Ridgely later created Dover Days, an annual celebration of Delaware history and culture, and founded the Delaware State Archives. This 1919 issue of The Woman Citizen features Ridgely’s image and political publications related to her suffragist work.

Patuxent Room, Winterthur

Library of Congress

Preservationists did not only seek to save complete historic structures. Historic interiors faced destruction from demolition or renovation of the buildings they occupied. Antique collector Henry Francis du Pont (1880-1969) of Delaware began importing and installing wall paneling and other decorative features from historic homes in his estate, Winterthur. The Patuxent Room, shown here, arrived at Winterthur from the still-extant Grahame House (built 1750) in Lower Marlboro, Maryland. Du Pont’s collection grew to 175 period rooms, many featuring interiors purchased from homes in the southeast United States. Winterthur is now considered one of the most important collections of American decorative arts in the world.

Society Hill Homes


Urban renewal efforts demolished many historic homes in Philadelphia in the mid-twentieth century. Developers razed entire blocks in the name of “slum clearance,” leaving some lots vacant for decades when redevelopment projects failed to materialize. The Society Hill neighborhood largely avoided this fate. Once known as the “Bloody Fifth Ward,” this neighborhood hosted a succession of often impoverished ethnic and religious minority groups throughout its long history. Long viewed as a slum, the neighborhood was targeted for redevelopment through preservation of much of its eighteenth- and nineteenth-century housing stock. City planner Edmund Bacon (1910-2005) spearheaded the initiative, which involved demolishing a number of non-residential buildings, restoring homes, and creating greenways and recreation spaces. In the process, the initiative displaced many long-time residents as property values rose.

In the twenty-first century, the neighborhood is home to the largest collection of historic houses of that era in the nation. Homeowners in the neighborhood must agree to adhere to strict preservation guidelines in order to purchase a home in the area. Bacon’s efforts and the enforcement of these guidelines have allowed the 600 block of Spruce Street to remain almost unchanged from this 1957 photograph.

Indian King Tavern

Library of Congress

Quaker merchant Mathias Aspden built the Indian King Tavern in 1750 in the growing village of Haddonfield, New Jersey. Taverns were important centers of business and commercial life in the colonial era and the Indian King was no exception. Aspden, a Loyalist, sold the tavern in 1775 to fellow Quaker Thomas Redman. When the Quakers’ devotion to pacifism caused a rift between Redman and the local patriot community, the tavern reached the pinnacle of its political life. The New Jersey State Assembly, removed from Trenton due to the ongoing battle, met there to adopt the Declaration of Independence and the Great Seal of the State of New Jersey.

Over the centuries, the Indian King was expanded with new rooms and cellars to reflect its changing use. Most of these were removed after 1903, when the State of New Jersey made the Indian King its first government-owned historic site and attempted to restore it to its Revolution-era appearance. This photo dates to 1934, when the Indian King was one of the first buildings to be documented under the new Historical American Buildings Survey. Because of its acquisition by the state, the grounds of the tavern have remained largely undisturbed for a century despite the radical expansion of the surrounding neighborhood. An archaeological study conducted in 2005 found evidence of the original foundation and structure of the building, including previously unknown tunnels and cellars, as well as artifacts from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Independence Hall, Philadelphia

Library of Congress

Philadelphians mobilized to save the Pennsylvania State House (Independence Hall) from demolition in 1816, the first recorded historic preservation effort in the United States. The Georgian-style structure was built in 1732 as the seat of Pennsylvania’s colonial government. It became an American landmark when it served as the site of the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, the home of the Second Continental Congress during the American Revolution, and the Constitutional Convention in 1787. During these years, the original wooden steeple was unceremoniously removed as it had become unstable.

In 1813, the state of Pennsylvania elected to demolish the two side piazzas to make room for modern office buildings. Three years later, as the state prepared to sell the building and the surrounding lots for new construction, Philadelphians organized to purchase them. In 1828, architect William Strickland (1788-1854) created a replica of the original steeple. The building still stands as the centerpiece of Independence National Historical Park, along with other preserved eighteenth-century structures, including Congress Hall (1789), and Carpenters’ Hall (1774).

Boyd Theater, 1933


Preservationists waged a long battle in the twenty-first century to save the Boyd Theater from demolition. Constructed in the Art Deco style, the Boyd Theater featured an ornate ticket booth and lobby, a colorful stage surround, and seating for nearly 2,500. By the time the Boyd opened in 1928, the city already hosted a collection of opulent movie palaces centered around Chestnut Street, west of Broad Street. The Boyd represented a transition in the city’s theater architecture from older classical styles to the modernist styles that were just coming into vogue.

As television became ubiquitous and audiences left for new multi-screen theaters in the suburbs, most of Philadelphia’s movie palaces closed. The Boyd remained in operation until 2002, the last of the city’s downtown movie theaters to screen films. Shortly after it closed, preservationist groups like the Preservation Alliance for Greater Philadelphia and Preservation Pennsylvania began efforts to preserve the building, naming it one of the city’s most endangered historic properties. After a decade and several sales, the owners of the Boyd Theater successfully petitioned the Philadelphia Historical Commission for a demolition permit on the grounds of financial hardship. The bulk of the building was demolished in 2014. The Chestnut Street façade, shown here in 1933, remains standing as the entrance to a new high-rise apartment tower.

Related Topics


Time Periods



Related Reading

Craig, Robert W. “Historic Preservation.” In Encyclopedia of New Jersey. Ed. Maxine N. Lurie and Marc Mappen. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2004, 368-69.

Hosmer, Charles B. Preservation Comes of Age: From Williamsburg to the National Trust, 1926-1949. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1981.

Hosmer, Charles B. Presence of the Past: A History of the Preservation Movement in the United States Before Williamsburg. Washington: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1955.

Kennedy-Grant, Philip S., Mark Alan Hewitt, and Michael J. Mills. AIA New Jersey Guidebook: 150 Best Buildings and Places. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2011.

Mauger, Ed, and Bob Skiba. Lost Philadelphia. London: Pavilion Books, 2013.

Maynard, W. Barksdale. Buildings of Delaware. Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 2008.

Mires, Charlene. Independence Hall in American Memory. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002.

Thomas, George E. Buildings of Pennsylvania: Philadelphia and Eastern Pennsylvania. Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 2010.

Webster, Richard. Philadelphia Preserved: Catalog of the Historic American Buildings Survey. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1976 (second edition, 1981).

Additional Sources

Center for Urban Policy Research at Rutgers University. Partners in Preservation: The Economic Benefits of Preservation in New Jersey. Trenton: New Jersey Historic Trust, 1998.

Delaware’s Historic Preservation Plan, 2018-2022. Dover: Delaware Department of State and the Division of Historical and Cultural Affairs, 2013.

New Jersey Comprehensive Statewide Preservation Plan, 2013-2019. Trenton: New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, 2013. [page builder: see if you can link to online version]

Pennsylvania’s Statewide Historic Preservation Plan, 2018-2023. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 2018.

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